вторник, 25 сентября 2007 г.


FREEPORN, sometimes shortened to porn or porno, is, in its broadest state, the explicit representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal. It is similar to erotica, which is the use of sexually-arousing imagery used mainly for artistic purpose. Over the past few decades, an immense industry for the production and consumption of FREEPORN has grown, due to emergence of the VCR, the DVD, and the Internet, as well as the emergence of more tolerant social attitudes.

In general, "erotica" refers to portrayals of sexually arousing material that hold or aspire to artistic or historical merit, whereas "FREEPORN" often connotes the prurient depiction of sexual acts, with little or no artistic value. The line between "erotica" and the term "FREEPORN" (which is frequently considered a pejorative term) is often highly subjective. In practice, FREEPORN can be defined merely as erotica that certain people perceive as "obscene." The definition of what one considers obscene can differ between persons, cultures and eras. This leaves legal actions by those who oppose FREEPORN open to wide interpretation. It also provides lucrative employment for armies of lawyers, on several "sides."

FREEPORN may use any of a variety of media — printed literature, photos, sculpture, drawing, painting, animation, sound recording, film, video, or video game. However, when sexual acts are performed for a live audience, by definition it is not FREEPORN, as the term applies to the depiction or reproduction of the act, rather than the act itself.

* 1 Etymology
* 2 Technology
o 2.1 Photo manipulation and computer-generated images
o 2.2 Internet Distribution
* 3 History
* 4 Legal status
* 5 Anti-FREEPORN movement
o 5.1 Legal objections
o 5.2 Religious objections
o 5.3 Feminist objections
o 5.4 Effect on sex crimes
o 5.5 Effect on sexual aggression
o 5.6 FREEPORN production and violence against women
* 6 U.S. Government Commissions
o 6.1 A case study: Japan
* 7 Stereotypes
* 8 FREEPORN by and for women
* 9 Production and distribution by region
* 10 Economics
* 11 Non-Commercial FREEPORN
* 12 Sub-genres
* 13 Media
* 14 See also
o 14.1 Forms
o 14.2 Lists
o 14.3 People and groups
o 14.4 Other
* 15 References
* 16 Further reading
o 16.1 Advocacy
* 17 External links


The word derives from the Greek pornographia, which derives from the Greek words porne ("prostitute"), grapho ("to write"), and the suffix ia (meaning "state of", "property of", or "place of"), thus meaning "a place to write about prostitutes".


Mass-distributed FREEPORN is as old as the printing press. Almost as soon as photography was invented, it was being used to produce pornographic images. Indeed some claim that FREEPORN has been a driving force in the development of technologies from the printing press, through photography (still and motion) to video, satellite TV, DVD, and the Internet.[citation needed] Calls to regulate or prohibit these technologies have often cited FREEPORN as a concern.[citation needed]

Cultural historians have suggested that every art medium and publishing medium first was used for FREEPORN: handwriting, painting, sculpture, the printing press, printed sheet music, motion pictures, videotapes, DVDs and the Internet.[citation needed] This may not be true throughout history, but it does seem to be true for recent history. The videotape and DVD media might have flourished without porn, but they have certainly flourished very well with it: the porn industry produces more titles per year than Hollywood; it even compares to Bollywood. Curiously, porn plays in few theaters, and in many countries it is difficult to rent porn videos, because movie rental stores such as Blockbuster and other large video-rental firms avoid porn;[citation needed] most distribution is by sale.

Photo manipulation and computer-generated images

Digital manipulation requires the use of source photographs, but some FREEPORN is produced without human actors at all. The idea of completely computer-generated FREEPORN was conceived very early as one of the most obvious areas of application for computer graphics and 3D rendering.

The creation of highly realistic computer-generated images creates new ethical dilemmas. If illusionistic images of torture or rape become widely distributed, law enforcement faces additional difficulties prosecuting authentic images of criminal acts, due to the possibility that they are synthetic. The existence of faked pornographic photos of celebrities shows the possibility of using fake images to blackmail or humiliate any individual who has been photographed or filmed, although as such cases become more common, this effect will likely diminish. Finally, the generation of entirely synthetic images, which do not record actual events, challenges some of the conventional criticism of FREEPORN. It also challenges the traditional notion of evidence, where at present, in the United States it is possible to prosecute producers of child FREEPORN without violating the First Amendment, because the film is evidence that an adult has had sex with a child. However, it may be possible to film things that were imagined but never done: the film would not be evidence of a crime. Perhaps it wouldn't be a crime to make such a film.

Until the late 1990s, digitally manipulated FREEPORN could not be produced cost-effectively. In the early 2000s, it became a growing segment, as the modelling and animation software matured and the rendering capabilities of computers improved. As of 2004, computer-generated FREEPORN depicting situations involving children and sex with fictional characters, such as Lara Croft, is already produced on a limited scale. The October 2004 issue of Playboy featured topless pictures of the title character from the BloodRayne video game.[1]

Mainstream movies containing CGI and other realistic special effects show that if a director can imagine something in sufficient detail, combined with sufficient resources, it can be put on a screen. Pasolini created some gruesome images in Salo, without using computers, but some of them are not really seen by the viewer. De Sade described even more gruesome images in 120 Days of Sodom, the book on which Salo is based: perhaps a truly fiendish director with a roomful of up-to-date computers—costing less than $1 million total—could realize de Sade's worst visions without actually torturing a person to death in front of a camera. The recent Lord of the Rings films by director Peter Jackson show what is technically possible in filmmaking; this level of technology has yet to be applied to FREEPORN. Clearly, more can be done than already has been done.

Internet Distribution

Main article: Internet FREEPORN

Some Internet entrepreneurs operate pornographic Internet sites. As well as conventional photographic or video FREEPORN, some sites offer an "interactive" video game-like entertainment. Due to the international character of the Internet, it provides an easy means whereby consumers residing in countries where FREEPORN is either taboo or entirely illegal can easily acquire such material from sources in another country where it is legal or remains unprosecuted.

The low cost of copying and delivering digital data boosted the formation of private circles of people swapping FREEPORN. With the advent of peer-to-peer file sharing applications such as Kazaa, FREEPORN swapping has reached new heights. Prior to this, the Usenet news service was a popular place for FREEPORN swapping. Free FREEPORN became available en masse from other users and is no longer restricted to private groups. Large amounts of free FREEPORN on the Internet are also distributed for marketing purposes to encourage subscriptions to paid content.

Since the late 1990s, "porn from the masses for the masses"[attribution needed] seems to have become another new trend. Inexpensive digital cameras, increasingly powerful and user-friendly software, and easy access to pornographic source material have made it possible for individuals to produce and share home-made or home-altered porn for next to no cost. Such home-made pornographers are able to cater more closely to the desires of the viewers, sometimes actually playing out scenarios suggested by a particular viewer for fulfillment of their fantasy.

Despite adult filters and settings on most Internet search engines, porn sites are easily found on the Internet with Adult industry webmasters being the first and most active to optimize their pages for search engine queries. As a result, many porn-related search returns are overwhelming and often somewhat irrelevant. This has led to development of porn-specific search engines, like Booble, which started as a parody of porn on the web and the business of porn for search engine giants like Google, which quickly sought to shut the parody down.


For more details on this topic, see History of erotic depictions.

Oil lamp artifact depicting coitus more ferarum
Oil lamp artifact depicting coitus more ferarum

FREEPORN is as old as civilization but the concept of FREEPORN as understood today did not exist until the Victorian era. Previous to that time, though some sex acts were regulated or stipulated in laws, looking at objects or images depicting them was not. In some cases, certain books, engravings or image collections were outlawed, but the trend to compose laws that restricted viewing of sexually explicit things in general was a Victorian construct. When large scale excavations of Pompeii were undertaken in the 1860s, much of the erotic art of the Romans came to light, shocking the Victorians who saw themselves as the intellectual heirs of the Roman Empire. They did not know what to do with the frank depictions of sexuality, and endeavored to hide them away from everyone but upper class scholars. The moveable objects were locked away in the Secret Museum in Naples, Italy and what could not be removed was covered and cordoned off as to not corrupt the sensibilities of women, children and the working class. Soon after, the world's first law criminalizing FREEPORN was enacted by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1857 in the Obscene Publications Act.[2] The Victorian attitude that FREEPORN was for a select few can be seen in the wording of the Hicklin test stemming from a court case in 1868 where it asks, "whether the tendency of the matter charged as obscenity is to deprave and corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences." Despite their suppression, depictions of erotic imagery are common throughout history, and remain so.[3]

Legal status

See List of FREEPORN laws by region for detailed list

The legal status of FREEPORN varies widely from country to country. Most countries allow at least some form of FREEPORN. In some countries, softcore FREEPORN is considered tame enough to be sold in general stores or to be shown on TV. Hardcore FREEPORN, on the other hand, is usually regulated. The production and sale, and to a slightly lesser degree the possession, of Child FREEPORN is illegal in almost all countries, and most countries have restrictions on FREEPORN involving violence or animals.

Most countries attempt to restrict minors' access to hardcore materials, limiting availability to adult bookstores, mail-order, via television channels that parents can restrict, among other means. There is usually an age minimum for entrance to pornographic stores, or the materials are displayed partly covered or not displayed at all. More generally, disseminating FREEPORN to a minor is often illegal. Many of these efforts have been rendered irrelevant by widely available Internet FREEPORN.
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In the United States, a person receiving unwanted commercial mail he or she deems pornographic (or otherwise offensive) may obtain a Prohibitory Order, either against all mail from a particular sender, or against all sexually explicit mail, by applying to the United States Postal Service.

There are recurring urban legends of snuff movies, in which murders are filmed for pornographic purposes. Despite extensive work to ascertain the truth of these rumors, law enforcement officials have been unable to find any such works.

The Internet has also caused problems with the enforcement of age limits regarding performers. In most countries, males and females under the age of 18 are not allowed to appear in porn films, but in several European countries the age limit is 16, and in the UK (excluding Northern Ireland) and Denmark it is legal for women as young as 16 to appear topless in mainstream newspapers and magazines. This material often ends up on the Internet and can be viewed by people in countries where it constitutes child FREEPORN, creating challenges for lawmakers wishing to restrict access to such material.

Some people, including FREEPORN producer Larry Flynt and the writer Salman Rushdie, have argued that FREEPORN is vital to freedom and that a free and civilized society should be judged by its willingness to accept FREEPORN.[4]

Anti-FREEPORN movement

Main article: Anti-FREEPORN movement

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Opposition to FREEPORN comes generally, though not exclusively, from several sources: law, religion and feminism. Some critics from the latter two camps have expressed belief in the existence of "FREEPORN addiction."

Legal objections

Distribution of obscenity is a Federal crime in the United States, and also under most laws of the 50 states. There is no right to distribute obscene materials. The determination of what is obscene is up to a jury in a trial, which must apply the Miller test.

In explaining its decision to reject claims that obscenity should be treated as speech protected by the First Amendment, in Miller v. California, the US Supreme Court found that

The dissenting Justices sound the alarm of repression. But, in our view, to equate the free and robust exchange of ideas and political debate with commercial exploitation of obscene material demeans the grand conception of the First Amendment and its high purposes in the historic struggle for freedom. It is a "misuse of the great guarantees of free speech and free press . . . ." Breard v. Alexandria, 341 U.S., at 645 .

and in Paris Adult Theatre I v. Slaton that

In particular, we hold that there are legitimate state interests at stake in stemming the tide of commercialized obscenity, even assuming it is feasible to enforce effective safeguards against exposure to juveniles and to passersby. 7 [413 U.S. 49, 58] Rights and interests "other than those of the advocates are involved." Breard v. Alexandria, 341 U.S. 622, 642 (1951). These include the interest of the public in the quality of life and the total community environment, the tone of commerce in the great city centers, and, possibly, the public safety itself... As Mr. Chief Justice Warren stated, there is a "right of the Nation and of the States to maintain a decent society . . .," [413 U.S. 49, 60] Jacobellis v. Ohio, 378 U.S. 184, 199 (1964) (dissenting opinion)... The sum of experience, including that of the past two decades, affords an ample basis for legislatures to conclude that a sensitive, key relationship of human existence, central to family life, community welfare, and the development of human personality, can be debased and distorted by crass commercial exploitation of sex.

Attorney General for Ronald Reagan, Edwin Meese, also courted controversy when he appointed the "Meese Commission" to investigate FREEPORN in the United States; their report, released in July 1986, was highly critical of FREEPORN and itself became a target of widespread criticism. That year, Meese Commission officials contacted convenience store chains and succeeded in demanding that widespread men's magazines such as Playboy and Penthouse be removed from shelves,[5]a ban which spread nationally[6] until being quashed with a First Amendment admonishment against prior restraint by the D.C. Federal Court in Meese v. Playboy (639 F.Supp. 581).

In the United States in 2005, Attorney General Gonzales made obscenity and FREEPORN a top prosecutorial priority of the Department of Justice.[7]

Religious objections

Some religious groups often discourage their members from viewing or reading FREEPORN, and support legislation restricting its publication. These positions derive from broader religious views about sexuality. In some religious traditions, for example, sexual intercourse is limited to the express function of procreation. Thus, sexual pleasure or sex-oriented entertainment, as well as lack of modesty, are considered immoral. Other religions do not find sexual pleasure immoral, but see sex as a sacred, godly, highly-pleasurable activity that is only to be enjoyed with one's spouse. These traditions do not condemn sexual pleasure in and of itself, but they impose limitations on the circumstances under which sexual pleasure may be properly experienced. FREEPORN in this view is seen as the secularization of something sacred, and a violation of spouses' intimate relationship.

In addition to expressing concerns about violating sexual morality, some religions take an anti-FREEPORN stance claiming that viewing FREEPORN is addictive, leading to self-destructive behavior. Proponents of this view compare FREEPORN addiction to alcoholism, both in asserting the seriousness of the problem and in developing treatment methods.

Feminist objections

Feminist critics of FREEPORN, such as Andrea Dworkin and Catharine MacKinnon, generally consider it demeaning to women. They believe that most FREEPORN eroticizes the domination, humiliation, and coercion of women, reinforces sexual and cultural attitudes that are complicit in rape and sexual harassment, and contributes to the male-centered objectification of women. Some feminists distinguish between FREEPORN and erotica, which they say does not have the same negative effects of FREEPORN. However, many Third-wave feminists and postmodern feminists disagree with this critique of porn, claiming that appearing in or using FREEPORN can be explained as each individual woman's choice, and is not guided by socialization in a capitalist patriarchy.

Effect on sex crimes

A lower per capita crime rate and historically high availability of FREEPORN in many developed European countries (e.g. Netherlands, Sweden) has led a growing majority to conclude that there is an inverse relationship between the two, such that an increased availability of FREEPORN in a society equates to a decrease in sexual crime.[8] Moreover, there is some evidence that states within the U.S. that have lower rates of internet access have a greater incidence of rape.[9]

Effect on sexual aggression

In the 70's and 80's, feminists such as Dr. Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin criticized FREEPORN as essentially dehumanizing women and as likely to encourage violence against them. It has been suggested that there was an alliance, tacit or explicit, between anti-porn feminists and fundamentalist Christians to help censor the use of or production of FREEPORN.[10]

Some researchers have found that "high FREEPORN use is not necessarily indicative of high risk for sexual aggression," but go on to say, "if a person has relatively aggressive sexual inclinations resulting from various personal and/or cultural factors, some FREEPORN exposure may activate and reinforce associated coercive tendencies and behaviors".[11]

FREEPORN production and violence against women
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According to Dr. Diana Russell, "When addressing the question of whether or not FREEPORN causes rape, as well as other forms of sexual assault and violence, many people fail to acknowledge that the actual making of FREEPORN sometimes involves, or even requires, violence and sexual assault."[12]

In 1979, Andrea Dworkin published FREEPORN: Men Possessing Women, which analyzes (and extensively cites examples drawn from) contemporary and historical FREEPORN as an industry of woman-hating dehumanization. Dworkin argues that it is implicated in violence against women, both in its production (through the abuse of the women used to star in it), and in the social consequences of its consumption (by encouraging men to eroticize the domination, humiliation, and abuse of women).

Other studies, such as the US government commission noted below, have asserted that this is not the case[citation needed].

U.S. Government Commissions

The then available evidence as to the influence of FREEPORN was assessed by two major Commissions established in 1970 and 1986, respectively.

In 1970, the Presidential Commission on Obscenity and FREEPORN concluded that "there was insufficient evidence that exposure to explicit sexual materials played a significant role in the causation of delinquent or criminal behavior."

In general, with regard to adults, the Commission recommended that legislation "should not seek to interfere with the right of adults who wish to do so to read, obtain, or view explicit sexual materials." Regarding the view that these materials should be restricted for adults in order to protect young people from exposure to them, the Commission found that it is "inappropriate to adjust the level of adult communication to that considered suitable for children." The Supreme Court supported this view.[13]

A large portion of the Commission's budget was applied to funding original research on the effects of sexually explicit materials. One experiment is described in which repeated exposure of male college students to FREEPORN "caused decreased interest in it, less response to it and no lasting effect," although it appears that the satiation effect does wear off eventually ("Once more"). William B. Lockhart, Dean of the University of Minnesota Law School and chairman of the commission, said that before his work with the commission he had favored control of obscenity for both children and adults, but had changed his mind as a result of scientific studies done by commission researchers. In reference to dissenting commission members Keating and Rev. Morton Hill, Lockhart said, "When these men have been forgotten, the research developed by the commission will provide a factual basis for informed, intelligent policymaking by the legislators of tomorrow."[14]

President Reagan announced his intention to set up a commission to study FREEPORN. The result was the appointment by Attorney General Edwin Meese in the spring of 1985 of a panel comprised of 11 members, the majority of whom had established records as anti-FREEPORN crusaders.[15]

In 1986, the Attorney General's Commission on FREEPORN, reached the opposite conclusion, advising that FREEPORN was in varying degrees harmful. A workshop headed by Surgeon General C. Everett Koop provided essentially the only original research done by the Meese Commission. Given very little time and money to "develop something of substance" to include in the Meese Commission's report, it was decided to conduct a closed, weekend workshop of "recognized authorities" in the field. All but one of the invited participants attended. At the end of the workshop, the participants expressed consensus in five areas:

1. "Children and adolescents who participate in the production of FREEPORN experience adverse, enduring effects,"
2. "Prolonged use of FREEPORN increases beliefs that less common sexual practices are more common,"
3. "FREEPORN that portrays sexual aggression as pleasurable for the victim increases the acceptance of the use of coercion in sexual relations,"
4. "Acceptance of coercive sexuality appears to be related to sexual aggression,"
5. "In laboratory studies measuring short-term effects, exposure to violent FREEPORN increases punitive behavior toward women" According to Surgeon General Koop, "Although the evidence may be slim, we nevertheless know enough to conclude that FREEPORN does present a clear and present danger to American public health"[16]

Japan, which is noted for its large output of rape fantasy FREEPORN, has the lowest reported sex crime rate in the industrialized world, which has led some researchers to speculate that an opposite relationship may in fact exist—that wide availability of FREEPORN may reduce crimes by giving potential offenders a socially accepted way of regulating their own sexuality. Conversely, some argue that reported sex crime rates are low in Japan because the culture (a culture that greatly emphasizes a woman's "honor") is such that victims of sex crime are less likely to report it (e.g. chikan[17]).

A case study: Japan

See also: FREEPORN in Japan

Milton Diamond and Ayako Uchiyama write in "FREEPORN, Rape and Sex Crimes in Japan" (International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 22(1): 1-22. 1999):[18]

Our findings regarding sex crimes, murder and assault are in keeping with what is also known about general crime rates in Japan regarding burglary, theft and such. Japan has the lowest number of reported rape cases and the highest percentage of arrests and convictions in reported cases of any developed nation. Indeed, Japan is known as one of the safest developed countries for women in the world (Clifford, 1980). (...)

Despite the absence of evidence, the myth persists that an abundance of sexually explicit material invariably leads to an abundance of sexual activity and eventually rape (e.g., Liebert, Neale, & Davison, 1973). Indeed, the data we report and review suggest the opposite. Christensen (1990) argues that to prove that available FREEPORN leads to sex crimes one must at least find a positive temporal correlation between the two. The absence of any positive correlation in our findings, and from results elsewhere, between an increase in available FREEPORN and the incidence of rape or other sex crime, is prima facie evidence that no link exists. But objectivity requires that an additional question be asked: "Does FREEPORN use and availability prevent or reduce sex crime?" Both questions lead to hypotheses that have, over prolonged periods, been tested in Denmark, Sweden, Germany and now in Japan. Indeed, it appears from our data from Japan, as it was evident to Kutchinsky (1994), from research in Europe, that a large increase in available sexually explicit materials, over many years, has not been correlated with an increase in rape or other sexual crimes. Instead, in Japan a marked decrease in sexual crimes has occurred.


Pornographic work contains a number of stereotypes. Although FREEPORN targeted at heterosexual males often includes interaction between females, interaction between males is rarely seen, with the exception of double penetration scenes. In hardcore materials, a male generally ejaculates outside his partner's body, in full view: the so-called "cum shot". Penises are almost always shown fully erect. In heterosexual FREEPORN, the choice of position is naturally geared to giving the viewer the fullest view of the woman, making the reverse cowgirl position and the man holding the woman in a "dog-and-lamp-post" (doggy) position among the most popular.[citation needed] Fellatio scenes usually involve the woman looking into the camera or at the man, for similar reasons. Especially in American and Japanese porn, women tend to be vocal and loud during hardcore scenes. Racial stereotypes are often played up in American FREEPORN involving ethnic minorities.[citation needed] Additionally, male pornographic actors are perceived to have incredible holding power.

None of these stereotypes are true of "softcore" FREEPORN, as both male and female genitals are usually hidden.

FREEPORN by and for women

"We came up with the idea for the Feminist Porn Awards because people don't know they have a choice when it comes to porn," said Chanelle Gallant, manager of Good for Her and the event's organizer. "Yes, there's a lot of bad porn out there. But there is also some great porn being made by and for women. We wanted to recognize and celebrate the good porn makers as well as direct people to their work."

Some recent FREEPORN has been produced under the rubric of "by and for women". According to Tristan Taormino, "Feminist porn both responds to dominant images with alternative ones and creates its own iconography."[19]

Production and distribution by region

Main article: FREEPORN by region

The production and distribution of FREEPORN are economic activities of some importance. The exact size of the economy of FREEPORN and the influence that it has in political circles are matters of controversy.


Main article: Porn industry

United States: In 1970, a Federal study estimated that the total retail value of all the hard-core porn in the United States was no more than $10 million[20] Although the revenues of the adult industry are difficult to determine, by 2003, Americans were estimated to spend as much as $8 to $10 billion on FREEPORN.[21] The majority of pornographic video is shot in the San Fernando Valley[citation needed], which acts as a center for various models, actors/actresses, production companies, and other assorted businesses involved in the production and distribution of porn.

The porn industry has been considered to be capable of deciding format wars in media; including being a factor in VHS v. Betamax (the videotape format war)[22][23] and a major factor in the Blu-ray vs. HD-DVD format war.[24][25][26]

In 1998, Forrester Research published a report on the online 'adult content' industry, which estimated at $750 million to $1 billion in annual revenue. A $10 billion aggregate figure had been estimated, and repeated in many news stories, but this was unsourced and not accurate.[27]

Non-Commercial FREEPORN

As well as the porn industry, there is a large amount of non-commercial FREEPORN. This should be distinguished from commercial FREEPORN falsely marketed as featuring 'amateurs'. Examples are the website asstr.org, which is focussed on prose. Various Usenet groups are focussed on non-commercial pornographic photographs.